The human brain is the most complex organ in the human body. We can subdivide it into several anatomically distinct areas. Each of them fulfills specific functions. Overall, the brain comprises 6 basic parts: the medulla, the pons, the cerebellum, the midbrain, the diencephalon and the cerebrum.
Located at the lower part of the brain stem, it forms the junction between the brain and the spinal cord. It contains many visceral reflex centers. The medulla regulates breathing, swallowing, sneezing, coughing, digestion, and regulates your heart rate. Without the medulla, life would be impossible; it regulates blood pressure and breathing. It is the most important part of the brain and, as a part of the brainstem, helps to transfer neural messages from the brain to the spinal cord.