The Kidney (3)
Which treatments are there for the acute kidney problems?
Usually patients go into hospital for acute kidney disease, or they are already hospitalizedins Krankenhaus einliefern. In some cases patients may also be treated at home. In any case, the underlying cause of the kidney failure should be identified. The question: “What kind of injury or illness caused the kidney failure?” is often difficult to answer.
Treating and preventing complications until your kidneys can recoversich erholen is very important. Treatments for preventing complications include. . .
- Balancing the amount of fluids in your body (too high/too less)
e.g. with intravenous fluids or diuretics;
- Controlling blood potassiumKalium levels
e.g. with calcium, glucose or sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
If the blood potassium is too high, it can cause a dangerously irregular heartbeat and muscle weakness.
- Restoring blood calcium levels
e.g. with calcium infusions;
- Removing toxins from the blood using dialysis
Dialysis helps remove excess potassium, toxins and excess fluids from the patient‘s body. The patient‘s blood is pumped through a dialyzer (artificial kidney) that filters the blood and then returns it to the body.
How to cureheilen a chronic kidney disease?
In the case of chronic kidney disorders (chronic disease is a long-termlangfristig condition), the goals will be to slow down the disease, reduce the symptoms and to avoid complications. Regardless of the impairment, the kidneys can still do some of their work (filter waste out of your blood), and therapy may reduce the complications of the disease. It is very important that the patient learns to identify the signs and symptoms of the disease.
The physician should find out the causes of the disease. Causes for the disease may be, for example, high blood pressure, diabetes or high cholesterol levels. The patient should take special medicine and may need to change their diet. In the case of diabetes, one must seek treatment very quickly.
Complications during a kidney ailmentdas Leiden should be monitored and adressed. It makes the patient more comfortable. The recommendation is full follow-up testing to see if their values stay stable or worsen.
For example, beneficial medications for . . .
- Lowering cholesterol levels
High levels of LDL cholesterol can increase the risk of heart disease.
- Treating anemia
e.g. supplementsdie Ergänzung, der Zusatz of the hormone erythropoietin (sometimes with added iron)
This supplements aidUnterstützung the production of more erythrocytes. Fatiguedie Ermüdung and weakness will be relievedentlasten.
- Lowering or regulating high blood pressure
e.g. ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) or angiotensin II receptor blockers. The patient may need frequent blood tests to check for the kidney function and the electrolyte levels. Additionally a diureticdiuretisch, harntreibend and a low-salt diet may be recommended.
- Relieving swelling
They help maintain the balance of fluids in the body.
- Protecting the bones
e.g. calcium and vitamin D supplements, also phosphate;
They prevent bone weaknessdie Schwäche and lower the risk of fractures. Phosphate protects your blood vessels from damage by calcification.
- A low protein diet
Eating less protein reduces the amount of work your kidneys have to do.
Is there any treatment for end-stage kidney disease?
End-stage kidney disease means that the kidneys are severely damaged. It is important to know that the damage can continue even when the causes (e.g. high blood pressure) are under control.
During end-stage kidney disease, the kidneys are no longer able to clear waste and fluids out of the blood. The patient will develop complete kidney failure. In that case, the patient needs to get dialysis or a kidney transplant. In the case of complete kidney failure, the life expectancydie Lebenserwartung without treatment will be only a few months.
When to get dialysis?
Dialysis means, the work which is usually done by your kidneys (removing waste and extra fluid from your blood) will be done artificiallykünstlich by a mechanical filter.
Hemodialysis: The filtering of waste and excessdas Übermaß fluids from your blood is done by a machine.
Peritoneal dialysis: A catheter will be inserted into your abdomen. A dialysis solution which absorbs waste and excess fluids is filled into the abdominal cavity. After a while, the solution which carries the waste from your blood, is removed from the body.
What is a kidney transplant?
This is a surgical replacement of a healthy kidney (from a deceasedder Verstorbene or living donor) into the patients body. After transplantation the patient needs lifelong medication to keep the body from rejecting the new organ.
Is there any research on future treatments?
The keyword for this is “regenerative medicine“. With this kind of medicine, damaged tissue or organs may be fully healed. This is a real cause of hope for patients with chronic diseases, because it will help slow disease progression.
What does the regenerative medicine do?
- Replacing damaged cells, tissue or organs with healthy ones (from a deceased or living donor);
- Raising the self-healing ability of the body;
- Restoring tissue and organ function by delivering specific cell types or products to the diseased tissue.
1. Mandal, AK.: Textbook of Nephrology, 3rd edition. Jaypee 2014.
1. ________________ is the most frequent complication during hemodialysis.
2. Which is the treatment of choice for many patients with end-stage renal disease?
a. Kidney transplant
b. Peritoneal dialysis
3. Patients with renal failure should be on which type of diet?
a. Limited protein, low carbohydrate, adequate calorie intake
b. High protein, high carbohydrate, low calorie
c. Low calorie, limited protein, low carbohydrate
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