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The Function of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland

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Carmen Lobitz
The Function of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Thyroid gland ©7activestudio – stock.adobe.com
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How is the thyroid gland structured? The thyroid gland surrounds the trachea, just below the larynx. The middle tissue is called the isthmus. It connects the right and the left thyroid lobes.

The thyroid follicles (the structural units of the thyroid gland) are responsible for the production and secretion of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Iodine is necessary for the synthesis of these hormones because thyroxine contains four atoms of iodine while triiodothyronine contains three. Besides T4 and T3 a third hormone, calcitonin, is produced by the thyroid gland. However, it is secreted by parafollicular cells and its function varies largely from those of thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

Which hormones does the thyroid gland secrete?

The functions of the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are similar. They control metabolism by regulating energy production and protein synthesis, which contribute to physical growth of the body and…

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