Anomalies and normal variants
Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 400–600 individuals. The most common type is fusion at the lower poles seen in more than 90% of the cases. It is an association of two anatomic anomalies, namely, ectopia and malrotation, also associated with other anomalies including vascular, calyceal, and ureteral anomalies. Frequent complications are urinary tract infections, stones and hydronephrosis.
From MTA Dialog 11/2017, translated by mt‑g medical translation GmbH & Co KG